04 Jan, 2023
Study Guides

Anatomy of the Endocrine System


What is the endocrine system? The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce hormones, which are chemical messengers released into the bloodstream and act on specific organs or tissues. The endocrine system helps to regulate many of the body’s functions, including growth and development, metabolism, and reproductive function.

Pituitary Gland

The pituitary gland, also known as the “master gland,” is located at the base of the brain and produces several hormones that regulate various body functions. These hormones include growth hormone, which regulates growth and development; prolactin, which stimulates milk production in the breasts; and thyroid-stimulating hormone, which regulates the thyroid gland.

Thyroid Gland

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck that produces thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolism and energy production. It also produces calcitonin, which helps to regulate calcium levels in the body.

Parathyroid Glands

The parathyroid glands are four small glands near the thyroid gland that produce parathyroid hormone, which helps regulate calcium levels in the body.

Adrenal Glands

The adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys and produce several hormones, including adrenaline, which helps to regulate the body’s response to stress, and cortisol, which helps to regulate metabolism and the immune system.


The pancreas is a gland located in the abdomen that produces insulin, which helps to regulate blood sugar levels, and glucagon, which helps to raise blood sugar levels.


The ovaries are a pair of glands located in the pelvis that produce estrogen and progesterone, which regulate the menstrual cycle and female reproductive function.


The testes are a pair of glands located in the scrotum that produce testosterone, which regulates male reproductive function and secondary sex characteristics.


The endocrine system is incredibly complex, and a disorder can happen with any part of it and have widespread effects for the body. Understanding the idea of hormones and what they do is important, because you may be clued into something that you could not otherwise find an explanation for. While there is not a shortage of resources or guides to these things all over the internet, the list above is very concise and to the point over the main idea for this system. If you’re interested in additional resources, we have a brief study guide for all the main systems available for free, with even more available if you subscribe and create a paid account today